The Temple of Literature was founded by King Ly Thanh Tong in 1070. Six years later, his successor Ly Nhan Tong founded the country's first university (Quoc Tu Giam) or "School for the Sons of the Nation".
Everyone knows that Temple of Literature (Van Mieu) an extraordinary place of worship and a very particular expression of the Vietnamese esteem for education, literature, and Confucianism. The temple is located to the south of the old Imperial Citadel of Thang Long. The Temple of Literature was founded by King Ly Thanh Tong in 1070. Six years later, his successor Ly Nhan Tong founded the country's first university (Quoc Tu Giam) or "School for the Sons of the Nation". first reserved for the members of the royal family, then gradually for the sons of the mandarins, and then opened to all the candidates having a sufficient education. In the fourteenth century, the golden age of the university was linked to its most revered rector, Chu Van An.
In 1484, the school began to honor all those who obtained the doctorate by inscribing their name and place birthplace on stele placed on the backs of turtles, tradition that would continue until 1779.The Temple of Literature, accessed by the Big Portico, is an elongated space with five courtyards. We first go through the access courtyard, divided into two symmetrical half by a tiled driveway. Follow it to the middle gate whose name does not refer only to its location between the completion door of Virtue to the right and the door of the Talent realization to the left. The three names allude to the book titles of two disciples of Confucius. Obedient fish overcoming the door represents the deference of students who aspire to become teachers, as carp aspires to become the dragon
Then, the Great Middle Course leads to the Constellation of Literature (Khue Van Cac). In 1802, when Emperor Gia Long transferred the university to Hue, where he built his temple of literature, he erected as compensation this elegant two-story pavilion. The four wooden circles of the belvedere windows represent the Sun. Constellation of Literature pavilion printed on the back of the 100,000VND because it is the symbol of Hanoi capital and the traditional symbol of the eagerness for the learning of Vietnamese people a symbol of a cultural work of the Thang Long thousand-year civilization. The third courtyard, the Garden of the Steles, within the center the beautiful well of the Celestial Clarity (Gieng Thien Quang). Around the Celestial Clarity, there are names of 1307 doctors and deputy doctors who obtained their doctorate between 1442 and 1779 are entered on 82 stele detailing the name, the date of birth and sometimes the age of each, the youngest was 16 years old and the oldest 61 years, but most students graduated between the ages of 26 and 33.
The academy was headed by a rector and a vice-rector. Many students lived and studied at the Temple. Most students had passed the regional exam (Hương Examination) before enrolling at the academy. During the course of study at the academy, the students focused on a discussion of literature and wrote poetry as well. The students learned Chinese, Chinese philosophy, and Chinese history. They had textbooks printed on paper which were in both Chinese and Vietnamese. They read the five books.The students enrolled for three to seven years. They had minor tests each month and four major tests per year. Success in the exams, certified by the Ministry of Ritesqualified them to sit the national exam (Hội Examination). Success at the Hội Examination qualified the student to sit the royal exam, the Đình Examination, held at court. At this exam, the monarch himself posed the questions, responded to the candidate's answer and then ranked those who passed into different grades. Visiting here you will discover historic buildings from the Ly and Tran dynasties in a revered place that has seen thousands of doctors’ graduated in what has now become a memorial to education and literature.
We then take the door of Great Results (Dai Thanh Mon) to the court of the Sages, lined with two buildings rebates. On the other side of the courtyard is the Great House of Ceremonies, the sanctuary where a statue of Confucius, the "Master of a Thousand Generations" as announced by a sign - eternally enthroned, flanked and the statue of his four disciples most prominent. When King Gia Long shifted Quoc Tu Giam to Hue, the fifth court, Khai Thanh, was dedicated to Confucius' parents. In 1947, a shell fired by the French destroyed the sanctuary. In 2000, the court regained its luster when we inaugurated the Thai Hoc, a magnificent shrine museum dedicated to three great Vietnamese kings, which also houses a bronze statue of the rector Chu Van An, the greatest Vietnamese educator. Behind it, there is another to worship Confucius and his 4 greatest students. Confucius (was born 551 B.C. to 479 B.C.) was a Chinese philosopher and politician. As of the fourth century B.C., Confucius was regarded as a sage who had deserved greater recognition in his time. By the second century B.C., during China’s first Han Dynasty, his ideas became the foundation of the state ideology. Today Confucius is widely considered one of the most influential teachers in Chinese history.
The philosophies are still followed by many people living in China today and have influenced thinking in Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. The various pavilions, halls, statues and stelae of doctors are places where offering ceremonies, study sessions and the strict exams of the Đai Viet took place. During Tet, The Masters come here to write calligraphy wishes in Hán characters in red paper and black ink. The artworks are given away as gifts or are used as home decorations for special occasions because it makes the wishes come true. Temple of Literature is the place can't miss when you visit not only Hanoi also Vietnam. Let connect with us to book a trip to the Temple of Literature.
I want to show the world's travelers all the magnificence of its northern mountainous regions, the splendor of its bay of Ha Long, the noble beauty of the imperial city, and the sweetness of the banks of the Mekong River with its dotted delta floating villages.